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We continue exploring the manufacturing process of solar cells by learning phases 3 and 4, which is to turn silicon wafer into solar cells, and then solar cells into solar panels.
Here is a summary of the entire manufacturing process of solar panels:
|Phase 1: Purify Quartz in to Solar grade silicon||Carbothermic reduction||Reduce SiO2 into S|
|Siemens process||Purify metallurgical grade Si in to solar grade Si|
|Phase 2: Solar grade Si in to Si wafers||CZochralski process||To produce p-doped monocrstalline Si|
|Bridgman process||To produce p-doped polycrystalline Si|
|Wire Saw||Slice Si ingots in to wafers|
|Phase 3: Si wafer in to Si cell||Water surface processing||Remove damaged surface and reduce reflectivity|
|Quartz furnace||N-doped p wafer|
|Screen printing||To produce top and bottom metal contacts, as well as back surface field|
|Firing||Allow diffusion of front and back contacts to contact with the emitter and absorber layer, respectively|
|Phase 4: Si solar cell in to solar panel||Tabbing||Electrically connect solar cells|
|Lamination||To adhere the entire solar panel stack|
|Post-lamination||Al frame, Silicon gasket , junction box added|
Further reference materials that I highly recommend:
Other parts in this series:
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2.0: Semiconductor Physics (Band Diagram, Free Carriers)
- Chapter 3.0: PN Junction diode (Drift and Diffusion)
- Chapter 3.1: PN Junction diode (Forward & Reverse Bias, IV Curve)
- Chapter 4: Photons
- Chapter 5.0: How do Solar Cells Work? (Working Principle, IV Curve, Photovoltaic Parameters, Solar Cell Datasheet)
- Chapter 5.1: How do Solar Cells Work? (Typical Structure, Shockley-Queisser Limit)
- Chapter 6.0: How are solar panels made? (From quartz to silicon wafers)